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New formation pressure prediction technique is developed. The introduction of the correct temperature adjustment to well logging methods while formation pressure calculation. Summary High technological and economic performance while drilling and deep wells max. This research is devoted to the development of the abnormally high formation pressure AHFP zones determining innovative technique on well logging data. The method is based on changes in dependences of clays physical properties in AHFP zones.

Abnormal pressure predicting methods in the thickness of sedimentary rocks are based on the pattern of rocks properties changes as a result of compaction in the process of sediments accumulation. The author investigates the thermal field formation in the vicinity of the borehole.

Dynamics of the thermal field during drilling, well cleanout and well shutdown is studied. The author determines temperature factor effects on the accuracy of abnormal pressure on well logging data calculation. A modified normally clay compacted curves technique is developed.

It involves the introduction of the correct temperature adjustment to electrologging curves before the line of normal clay compaction tracing. By this modified normally clay compacted dating samplers technique, abnormal pressures and pressure coefficients of anomaly in sediments of Bazhenov formation Sredne-Nazymskoe and Galyanovskoe oil fields were calculated dating samplers the analyzed area.

Topic: Dating samplers geophysics, Earth physics Abnormal formation pressure estimation according to well logging data by taking into account dynamic thermal field Ivan Deshenenkov, Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas Introduction This research is devoted to the development of the abnormal high formation pressure AHFP zones determining innovative technique on well logging data.

It takes into account the nonsteady thermal field in the vicinity of the borehole. Normal pressure is formation pressure which is due to the presence of fluids water, hydrocarbons in pore spaces of the rock matrix hydrostatic pressure of fresh or salt water.

It can be considered as an open hydraulic system where pressure can easily communicate through the formation pores. Abnormal pressure is any geopressure that is different from the established normal trend for the given area and depth. The presence of hydrocarbons in reservoirs, the rate of sedimentation, deposition and compaction of sediments especially clayey sediments as well as tectonic activities faults, salt diapirs, etc.

AHFP represent a serious threat for the well and its staff maintenance while deep wells drilling and development. Erroneous identification of AHFP intervals, incorrect suppression of high-energy formation leads to washing fluid absorption and, consequently, to unexpected kicks and blow outs and severe accidents.

Formation pressures can be the major factors affecting drilling operations. Unfortunately, formation pressures can be very difficult to locate and to quantify precisely where unusual or abnormal dating samplers exist. Proper detection and evaluation of formation pore pressures will help in more effective overall well planning, including: safe and economical selection of casing interval; proper engineering of equipment to minimize potential hazards e.

Thus, high technological and economic performance in drilling and dating samplers wells development can be achieved in case of correct prediction and estimation of AHFP zones. Evaluation of formation pore pressure or formation pore gradient is fundamental and the basis for many engineering works. The theory of abnormal pressure prediction methods Undercompaction of shales leads to abnormal formation pressures.

If a quick sedimentation process does not give enough time for the interstitial water to escape, or, if the normal porosity compaction process 2ne1 dara dating 2021 prohibited by not letting the fluids in the pore spaces escape, the rock matrix shales cannot increase its grain-to-grain contact; therefore its compaction is not dating samplers spectacol de dating olandeze the shales are undercompacted.

In such pressure system fluids are dating samplers free to expel from the pores. The total overburden load continues to increase with sedimentation; the rock matrix can no longer carry its burden; the fluids in the pores of the rock dating samplers to support part of the overburden, resulting in higher than normal fluid pressures [V. Dobrinin et al. According to these reasons abnormal pressure predicting methods in the thickness of sedimentary rocks are based on the pattern of rocks properties changes as a result of compaction in the process of sediments accumulation.

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Physical properties of pure clays, used as an indicator of pore pressure, are determined by its compaction degree. Clayey rocks containing deposits with AHFP are dating samplers sealed and have higher porosity in comparison with similar rocks with normal pore pressure [V. Dobrinin, ].

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This dependence is linear. Temperature correction or reduction to constant temperature of rocks is carried out while using temperature coefficients included in equations.

Temperature correction contribution is very significant. Physical parameters depend on rocks density and as a dating samplers of porosity. This dependence of clayey rocks is the basis of various identifying and estimation by abnormal pressures methods.

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Normally clay compacted curves technique features and dynamic thermal field simulation Lets consider normally clay compacted curves technique more closely. The following steps are necessary to dating samplers the formation pressures: the normal trend is established by plotting the logarithm of shale resistivity vs. Factors determining changes dating samplers physical properties of pure clay rocks are changes of clay mineral composition and dating samplers.

However, the impact of changes in clay mineral composition at depths of more than m in AHFP dallas dating evenimente is nonessential. Temperature has a significant contribution to the calculation of reservoir pressure [A. Ipatov et al. The innovative method is based on normally clay Fig. According to this technique normalized to the temperature t1. The equation for abnormal pressure calculation 1-in studying sequence; 2normalized to the temperature t1 on includes the clays resistivity in normal compaction zone, clays the depth h1; 3-AHFP zone; 4 and 5 resistivity in abnormal pressure zone and temperature correction.

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In zone of normal clay compaction, where - continuation normally clay reservoir pressure is equal to the hydrostatic one, normally compacted curves in AHFP zone. Clay resistivity deviations from normally clay compaction curve shows abnormal pressures zones.

Temperature correction is traditionally calculated according to the geothermal gradient. Nevertheless, the real thermal field in the borehole can differ greatly from stationary geothermic data.

Therefore, thermal field in the borehole was simulated. Also the distribution of the temperature over time after flushing out of interviu cu gurus de dating was surveyed within the radius of the well logging methods Fig.

It involves the introduction of the correct temperature adjustment to the electrical logging curves before tracing the line of normal clay compaction. Formation pressure prediction innovative technique In the first stage electrical logging curves dating samplers resistivity log or lateral log lead to constant temperature for example 20 C.

As a result, dating samplers changes depend with depth only on the value of the actual stress.


It should be noted that temperature corrections are introduced using software package Kamerton and a specially developed algorithm. Then, pure clays are determined in geological column by spontaneous potential maximum data.

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After, normally clay compaction curve is drawn in interval of meters by electrical logging curves - normal resistivity tool or lateral device. In last stage abnormal pressures and pressure coefficients of anomaly in sediments of Bazhenov formation are calculated.

It was found that pressure gradient in formation, in other words pressure in the lower-lying formation, is higher than in the cover one.

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Pressures for Bazhenov formation are calculated as averages between pressures in underlying and overlying sediments. Investigated intervals above and below the zone of AHFP were determined after drawing of normally clay compacted curve.

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Then pressures were calculated using special Kamertons algorithm. Pressures were estimated as average from Bazhenov formation pressure curves.

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Results and conclusions: 1. Formation of thermal field in the vicinity of the borehole was investigated. Temperature factor effect on the accuracy of abnormal pressure calculation using well logging data was estimated.

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Innovative method AHFP calculation, based on changes in dependences of clay physical properties in AHFP zones and taking into account nonsteady thermal field in the vicinity of the borehole was developed. Dating samplers of abnormal pressures gradients and abnormal pressure coefficients in sediments of Bazhenov formation were constructed Fig. References Dobrinin, V. Nedra, Moscow, Dobrinin, V. Nedra, Moscow, Ipatov, A. Cameroon volcano Analogue modeling of elongated volcanoes with distinction of the different volcano-tectonic structures on the simulations, future perspectives Summary Analogue modeling of elongated volcanoes can be used to study the max.

Intrusions are seen to diminish the expression of deformation structures associated with spreading. A huge amount of information can be obtained by image analysis of images acquired during the simulations, e. After controlling the correct scaling of the simulations, a relation can be found between simulated structures and field evidence of deformation at natural volcanoes. Beside this analogue modeling method, satellite images and even field work is needed to obtain the goal dating samplers enhancing the knowledge of volcano-tectonic structures.

Beyond the field of volcanology, analogue modeling can be a useful method to understand tectonic structures and find a solution for current problems in basin dynamics, reservoir geology, sedimentology and deformation structures in general. Topic: 10 The influence of spreading and intrusion on the deformation of elongated volcanoes through analogue modeling Sam Poppe, Matthieu Kervyn papa datând Meerendre, Patric Jacobs, University of Ghent Introduction Volcano deformation can be studied by analogue modeling in the lab.

Gravitational spreading and magma intrusions are the two most important geological processes deforming active volcanoes that can be reproduced in the lab. The principle of analogue modeling has been dating taurus man gemeni femeie to simulate intrusion-induced deformation at circular volcanic cones by intruding golden syrup in a sand and plaster mixture consisting of an horizontal layer with a circular cone on top of it Kervyn et al.

The volcano-tectonic structures and processes affecting Mt Cameroon, connected to the Cameroon Hot Line, are poorly known Mathieu et al. Therefore, a VLIR Own Initiative project aims at dating samplers the knowledge of the volcano activity and as such reduce the risks for the population in the MC area. Methods and data collecting A mixture of quartz sand 0. Building up a cone above a layer of silicone causes the cone to spread laterally under gravity.

Cameroon i. The elongation ratio of 0. Magma intrusion is simulated by intruding golden syrup viscosity: Pa. Different intrusion apertures are used in order to obtain different intrusion geometry.

Circular apertures simulate slow intrusion rates weeks, months forming magma chambers whereas small rectangular apertures simulate fast intrusion rates hours, days e. Combining the two setups provides insights into dating samplers interaction of spreading and intrusion on the deformation of the elongated cone.

A digital camera takes vertical images of the experiment surface at a defined time interval minutes enabling quantitative analysis of horizontal deformation through image processing. Different types of intrusion shape are observed in nature and can be simulated in the experiments.

An experimental setup with a rectangular intrusion opening 0. For the combination of spreading and intrusion, the silicone layer above the rectangular aperture is perforated.

After putting the deformed cone with the intrusion in a freezer dating samplers several hours, the frozen golden syrup intrusion can be excavated and the morphology of the intrusion imaged. After analysis, these images are used to relate different dating samplers types to different patterns in deformation structures, fractures, folds etc.

Image analysis The images are pre-processed in Adobe Photoshop to enhance surface texture enabling to analyze the deformation velocity and direction during the entire duration of an experiment. An application in the mathematical program Matlab was designed to extract surface deformation through texture correlation between images Delcamp et al.

The output data are dating samplers visualized in illustration programs. In the context of an apprenticeship in the third Bachelor in Geology 1st International Geosciences Student Conference Bucharest, Romania, April 11 The final result of such an analysis is a figure displaying horizontal deformation velocities using a color scale and orientated arrows indicating the direction of the horizontal deformation.

Such mappings can give information on specific areas of significant higher or lower deformation, or preferences in direction of deformation on the cone. Dimensionless -parameters Analogue models are the most useful when they are scaled and thus compared quantitatively compared dating samplers natural cases, e.

To control the correct scaling of the experimental setup, different dimensionless -parameters can be defined for geometric, kinematic and dynamic parameters. The focus of the project was set on the geometric and kinematic scaling, defining four dimensionless ratios controlling the system geometry and one ratio describing the balance between the gravitational deformation velocity and the intrusion rate.

Similar values of each dimensionless -parameter were obtained for experiments and the natural case of MC, ensuring relevance of the experimental observation for the natural case. Results Spreading simulations lasted hours. Early on, two fractures parallel to the summit ridge form dating samplers the long flanks.

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Each of these deep listric faults is associated with a secondary antithetic normal fault on the opposite cone flank. Movements along these faults induce summit ridge subsidence and preferential basal spreading along the short cone axis.

The lower flanks of the cone show a pattern of graben structures and triangular horsts. Along the summit and across the short dating samplers one main rift zone is observed, because of the preferential spreading orientation. A fold and thrust belt is formed at the base of the long flanks. We interpret this as the result of the spreading cone load, pushing the silicone layer forward. This belt can extend more than ten centimeters from the cone base to the edge of the simulation surface.

Image analysis Fig. Deformation is asymmetric, with more deformation in the western than in the dating samplers part, probably due to small variations in the thickness of the substratum layers.

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The silicone layer displays several ridges and folds that are located beneath the most important surface fractures or folding zones. Two faults form on the upper flank, parallel to the summit dating samplers. The western fault soon becomes inactive, while the eastern one continues to be active. Inflation dating samplers this flank goes on, while dating samplers secondary parallel fault forms near the primary one.

Deformation remains limited to the central part of this eastern flank, forming a complex structure of little fractures. - Only the Best Free Live Cams

Eventually the upper dating dating samplers starts to subside and causes the whole middle part of the summit ridge to collapse, with the inactive fault dating vs relații serioase western edge. The result is a subsided central part of the upper flanks dating samplers summit ridge and an inflated area of the lower eastern flank, with local instabilities.

Golden syrup extrusion takes place near the zone of maximum surface deformation and the experiment is stopped. The extrusion point is at the edge of the subsidence area. The frozen intrusion shows a dyke shape 2 cm thick, cm high and cm long.

Image analysis reflects the inflation zone on the eastern flank with high deformation velocities 3 mm. The subsided area shows no horizontal deformation on the analysis, as expected from the experiment observations presented above.